I copied the following few paragraphs from various parts of this book reivew of The Goldilocks Enigma in order to point out the problems and the solution that Davies rightfully says is necessary:
Why is the cosmos ideally set up to support life? Physicist Paul Davies tells Stuart Wavell about the point where science meets religion.
Goldilocks and the riddle of the perfect universe
Anyone expecting Davies to recant his non-religious views and join the intelligent design lobby will be disappointed. “We can’t dump all this in the lap of an arbitrary god and say we can’t inquire any further,” he says. “The universe looks ingenious, it looks like a fix, and words like meaning and purpose come to mind. But it doesn’t mean that we’re going to have a miracle-working cosmic magician meddling with events.”
Then there’s the viewpoint of Richard Dawkins, the ardent Darwinist and recent author of The God Delusion, who holds that life is essentially pointless and came about by chance before natural selection took over. Close compares Dawkins to religious fundamentalists, “who know they are right in their position, just as Richard knows he is right in his position”.
Davies wants to rise above such bickering. “I want to get away from this notion that something has to be accepted on faith,” he says. “That just becomes a sterile argument. These people can argue all night, but you’re never going to prove or disprove the other person’s position.”
The only way to satisfy Davies plea is to explain how the Anthropic constraint on the forces unifies them into a theory of everything:
In quantum field theory, a postiron has the same gravitational properties as an electron because the negative energy states are really the postivite energy states of antiparticles. That means that matter generation from this energy makes no difference to the gravity of the universe, and even general relativity supports this conclusion if the universe is infinite, since gravity is essentially curvature that caused by the energy that's contained in a region of space. In this situation, pair production changes this energy from photons to the mass of other particle pairs, but the energy curvature and gravitation of the universe remain the same.
But that's not what happens if the universe is finite.
You can't condense huge volumes of rarefied mass-energy from a finite closed vacuum and then contain the matter energy-density to a finite region of space without increasing negative pressure, because the gravitational acceleraton is zero when the density of the vacuum is -0.5*rho(matter).
This drastically changes the effect when... rho+3P/c^2=0 in a finite universe, because you have no choice but to condense this energy in order to attain the matter density when the negative energy states have negative pressure, because... P=-u=-rho*c^2
So there is no net change on the gravity of the universe, because the effect is two-fold... an increasing antigravitational *effect* is offset by increase in positive gravitational curvature.
But that means that tension between the vacuum must increase as particle pair creation drives vacuum expansion if the universe is finite, and the offset increase in both, negative pressure, and positive gavitational curvature necessarily holds the vaccum flat and stable as it expands, so it cannot run-away! Increasing tension between the vacuum and ordinary matter leads to a prediction that the integrity of the forces that bind this finite structure will surely eventually be compromised by this process and we will have another big bang.
So the second law of thermodynamics is never violated when the entropy of the universe always increases via the described perpetually inherent thermodynamic structuring, which enables the universe to continuously "evolve".
1) A literal anthropic constraint on the forces.
2) The basic tennents of evolutionary theory are correct.